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You know, it was a part of a bigger project of Gogol's. Because I don't want to read a book undone, like Kafka's The Castle.) showed evidence of this pattern in a modern population.In this study on the Ariaal people of Africa, the 7 repeat allele VNTR form was found to correlate to better nutrition in nomads, but worse nutrition in agriculturalists.I'm waiting for your respond, thanks in advance.Certain Polymorphisms in the DRD4 gene have been associated with behavioral traits such as novelty seeking (NS), impulsivity, and ADHD.Here we suggest another research strategy that allows us to test possible selective influences of socioeconomic changes on DRD4 polymorphisms over time: the analysis of ancient DNA from prehistoric South American populations dating to different time periods and associated with different modes of subsistence and organization through the archaeological record.
If NS has been an evolutionary beneficial adaptation in the human past, and there is a genetic predisposition for this trait, we should find high frequencies of alleles associated with NS in prehistoric hunter and gatherers.
It has to be acknowledged that these categorizations cannot reflect the individual complexity of the archaeological groups included in this study and that transitions between assigned categories can be more or less fluent, but as a model for the questions addressed in this study the chosen systematics are the only ones feasible.).
At least two independent extracts were made for each sample to allow an authentication of analysis results by comparison.
We should also observe a frequency decrease of alleles determining this personality trait with increasing social complexity, structure and the transition to producing economies in human groups, if NS is really maladaptive in these social environments, due to selective evolutionary processes.
Most studies on the DRD4 gene have largely focused on the 7 repeat allele of the 48 base-pair VNTR in exon 3.
Another study comparing indigenous hunter-gatherers and agriculturalists in South America found a positive correlation with foraging subsistence and high frequencies of the 7 repeat allele suggesting that the subsistence mode has selective impact on the polymorphism (Tovo-Rodrigues et al. Both studies have been conducted on modern populations, thus it has to be considered that observed frequencies might have been biased by past admixture with other populations or even that the modes of subsistence as well as the grades of social complexity in these populations changed over time, meaning that e.g.